HHO Gas Generator | HHO Generator | Oxyhydrogen | Hyrdogen Fuel

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New Site Coming | Click here to pre-sign and show support. HHO is real!


Attention New Update:

To those who pre-signed, we want to let you know that we received your info and we are going to be sending something up to keep everyone up to date. We are seeking a sponsor to help with a formal study. We will then post all of our findings. We also want to compare the price of using electric batteries to power the HHO Gas Genenerator rather than using the alternator. It's just a thought but I wanted to put it out there. These are the two studies we will be looking to do. Particularly providing FORMAL studies of the major HHO Gas Generator manufacturers. So if you are a manufacturer, please submit your info and state MANUFACTURER or something so we know. If you are an Installer who is able to install an HHO Generator, please also signup and include your information. There are many people who are looking for installers that are certified mechanics.

We are getting a formal logo designed and putting together a new site. What is keeping us the busiest if finding the right sponsor. The traffic this site is getting is unreal and the hits keep doubling with repeat visitors climbing and climbing. We have no doubt that HHO Gas will play a key role in the auto industry and we applaud those of you who are keeping and open mind and doing your own homework.

Here is a very rough concept car that we envision on the road soon!


HHO Gas Generator Hummer H2


This image is of an oxyhydrogen torch. Notice the thin lateral dimensions, and the long distance of the flame. Also notice that the flame begins a short distance from the torch tip; if the distance is great enough the torch tip can remain relatively cool.
This image is of an oxyhydrogen torch. Notice the thin lateral dimensions, and the long distance of the flame. Also notice that the flame begins a short distance from the torch tip; if the distance is great enough the torch tip can remain relatively cool.[1]

Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases, typically in a 2:1 atomic ratio; the same proportion as water.[2] At normal temperature and pressure, oxyhydrogen can burn when it is between about 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume,[3] with a flame temperature around 2000 °C.[4]

Oxyhydrogen will combust (turning into water vapor and releasing energy which sustains the reaction) when brought to its autoignition temperature. For a stoichiometric mixture at normal atmospheric pressure, this is about 570 °C (1065 °F).[3] The minimum energy required to ignite such a mixture with a spark is about 0.02 millijoules.[3]

The quantity of heat evolved, according to Julius Thomsen, is 34,116 calories for each gram of hydrogen burned. This heat-disturbance is quite independent of the mode in which the process is conducted; but the temperature of the flame is dependent on the circumstances under which the process takes place. It obviously attains its maximum in the case of the firing of pure "oxyhydrogen" gas (a mixture of hydrogen with exactly half its volume of oxygen, the quantity it combines with in becoming water, German Knall-gas). It becomes less when the "oxyhydrogen" is mixed with excess of one or the other of the two reacting gases, or an inert gas such as nitrogen, because in any such case the same amount of heat spreads over a larger quantity of matter.[2]

Many forms of oxyhydrogen lamps have been invented, such as the limelight, which used an oxyhydrogen flame to heat a piece of lime to white hot incandescence.[4] The explosiveness of the gas mixture made them all more or less dangerous at that time, and they have been replaced by modern electric lighting.

It was much used in platinum works, as platinum could be melted (at a temperature of 1768.3 °C) only in an oxyhydrogen flame, or an electric furnace (which is now used instead).

Contents

[edit] Oxyhydrogen torch

An oxyhydrogen torch is an oxy-gas torch which burns hydrogen (the fuel) with oxygen (the oxidiser). It is used for cutting and welding metals, glass, and thermoplastics.[4] An oxyhydrogen torch is used in the glass industry for "fire polishing"; slightly melting the surface of glass to remove scratches and dullness.

[edit] Water torch

A bubbler apparatus used to mitigate potential flashback.
A bubbler apparatus used to mitigate potential flashback.[5]

A water torch is an oxyhydrogen torch which is fed by oxygen and hydrogen generated on demand by water electrolysis, avoiding the need for bottled oxygen and hydrogen. Water torches must be designed to mitigate flashback by making the electrolytic chamber strong enough. Use of an intermediary water bubbler makes potential electrolyzer damage from flashback negligible, with a dry flashback arrestor being ineffective due to flame velocity. The bubbler is connected directly in series with the output gas. A water bubbler is sometimes referred to as a wet flashback arrestor, and effectively captures any remaining electrolyte in the output gas. Suitable electrolytes include sodium or potassium hydroxide, and other salts that ionize well.[1] Also "the electrolyzer system must be of high enough pressure to keep the gas velocity at the nozzle above the combustion velocity of the flame, or the system will backfire".[1] For images of water torch equipment see these links: [1] [2] [3][4][5][6][7][8].

[edit] Brown's design

The series cell design by Yull Brown. Notice the power source connected to only the outer two plates. Also note the single gas output duct, signifying the predominant characteristic of Brown's electrolyzer.
The series cell design by Yull Brown.[5] Notice the power source connected to only the outer two plates. Also note the single gas output duct, signifying the predominant characteristic of Brown's electrolyzer.
A common ducted electrolyzer built in a cylindrical fashion. This is the first common ducted electrolyzer design issued a United States patent in 1966 to William A. Rhodes.
A common ducted electrolyzer built in a cylindrical fashion. This is the first common ducted electrolyzer design issued a United States patent in 1966 to William A. Rhodes.[6]

Some water torch models mix the two gases immediately after production (instead of at the torch tip) making the gas mixture more accurate.[5] This electrolyzer design is referred to as common-ducted,[1] and the first was invented by William A. Rhodes in 1966.[6] Oxyhydrogen gas produced in a common-ducted electrolyzer is commonly referred to as Brown's gas, after Yull Brown who received a utility patent for a series cell common-ducted electrolyzer in 1977 and 1978 (the term "Brown's gas" is not used in his patents, but "a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen" is referenced).[5][7]

Brown's torches also used an electric arc to increase the temperature of the flame (called atomic welding):[5]

An electric arc is passed through the mixture of gas before burning, so that the gas molecules break into atomic oxygen and hydrogen, using the electrical energy to produce a hotter flame when the atoms recombine".[5]

[edit] Construction

Brown's electrolyzer comprised:

the cells as a single unit in which a number of electrodes, effectively in series, are arranged adjacent each other in a common electrolytic chamber, the chamber being provided with a gas collection space and an outlet for connection to, for example, gas burner means. Furthermore, only the end electrodes need be connected to an external source of electrical energy and the arrangement as a whole can be made extremely efficient and compact. Additionally the need for a transformer for most applications can be eliminated by such an arrangement so that the apparatus can be designed to be electrically connected directly to a main electrical supply, through a bridge rectifier if desired. By eliminating the need for a transformer, the gas generating equipment as a whole can be made surprisingly compact, to be well suited for small domestic requirements as well as heavy industrial requirements.[5]

[edit] Applications

The "Extension of lean-limit capability". Shown is a leaning of the air/fuel ratio from 1.7 to ~1.87, which is approximately a 10% increase in the lean limit.
The "Extension of lean-limit capability".[8] Shown is a leaning of the air/fuel ratio from 1.7 to ~1.87, which is approximately a 10% increase in the lean limit.[8]
  • Torch use. Yull Brown claimed "a method of oxy/hydrogen welding, brazing or the like".[7]
  • Fuel enhancement; hydrogen affects the burn rate of fuels and lean combustion capabilities of internal combustion engines.[8][9][10] Fuel Enhancement systems are designed "to feed the hydrogen and oxygen gases directly to an internal combustion engine without intermediate storage".[11] For Diesel applications; "When the hydrogen enriched air is compressed, the diesel fuel is introduced with a resulting improvement in fuel efficiency and maximized combustion of the fuel".[12] Fuel enhancement has the potential to substantially reduce pollution emissions of internal combustion engines; research in 2004 concluded that "HC-emissions as well as NOx-emissions could be reduced to near zero".[13] A 50% reduction in gasoline consumption, at idle, was reported by numerically analyzing "the effect of hydrogen enriched gasoline on the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of a small spark-ignition engine".[14] When Brown's Gas burns it forms water, resulting in cooling the combustion chambers of engines, effectively allowing for greater compression ratios (see: Water injection). Hydrogen "addition can guarantee a regular running", of the engine "with many advantages in terms of emissions levels and fuel consumption reduction".[13] Hydrogen fuel enhancement can be optimized by implementing established lean burn concepts, and at minimum to achieve an actual increase in gas mileage the air/fuel ratio needs appropriate modification.[9][8][13][15] "Overall, increases in engine efficiency are more dominant than the energy loss incurred in generating hydrogen, resulting in improved fuel economy for the system as a whole".[9] This is supported by computational analysis that "has marked the possibility of operating with high air overabundance (lean or ultra-lean mixtures) without a performance decrease, but with great advantages on pollution emissions and fuel consumption".[14]
  • Heating. Sang Nam Kim claims "an energy generating apparatus using the cyclic combustion of Brown gas wherein a heat generating unit is heated to a temperature of 1,000.degree. C".[16]

[edit] Claims

Hydrogen and oxygen being passed through a torch equipped with an electric arc. This is a method claimed by Yull Brown to increase the energy content of the resulting torch. Considering conservation of energy this is a reasonable claim; the energy in the electric arc must be conserved.
Hydrogen and oxygen being passed through a torch equipped with an electric arc. This is a method claimed by Yull Brown to increase the energy content of the resulting torch.[5] Considering conservation of energy this is a reasonable claim; the energy in the electric arc must be conserved.
A claimed heating apparatus using Brown's Gas to heat an element to 1,000° C.
A claimed heating apparatus using Brown's Gas to heat an element to 1,000° C.[16]
  • Brown's gas is "a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen generated in substantially stoichiometric proportions in an electrolytic cell by electrolytic dissociation of water".[5] Because Brown's Gas is produced via electrolysis its production conforms to the 1st and 2nd laws of electrolysis.
  • A Brown's gas electrolyzer is designed with "an outlet" emitting hydrogen and oxygen "in substantially stoichiometric proportions".[5] A single gas output is typically referred to as common ducted, and a stoichiometric proportion of hydrogen and oxygen is typically referred to as oxyhydrogen.
  • Yull Brown claimed that Brown's Gas eliminates "many of the disadvantages associated with conventional gas welding practice", "particularly for users working remote from a supply depot and for whom there might be an appreciable delay between the placing of an order for a delivery of gas", and "the actual delivery".[5] This is specifically with regard to "cylinders (or "bottles") of gas, usually oxygen and acetylene".[5]
  • "Hydrogen-oxygen welding has the advantage that it does not pollute the atmosphere as does oxy-acetylene welding".[5]
  • Varying flame temperature: this effect is explained by inaccurate infrared thermometry,[17] and measurement of the target material rather than the flame itself.

[edit] Klein's design

A mass spectrometry scan of HHO gas created with a PerkinElmer GC-MS Clarus 500, by SunLabs at the University of Tampa, Florida, showing a peak at 5 m/z. Ruggero Santilli claims that this peak can only be explained by his "magnecule" theory.
A mass spectrometry scan of HHO gas created with a PerkinElmer GC-MS Clarus 500, by SunLabs at the University of Tampa, Florida, showing a peak at 5 m/z.[18] Ruggero Santilli claims that this peak can only be explained by his "magnecule" theory.[18]
The overall electrolyzer apparatus designed by Dennis Klein.
The overall electrolyzer apparatus designed by Dennis Klein.[19]

HHO gas or Klein gas is an oxyhydrogen mixture made by water electrolysis, which has been trademarked Aquygen by the firm Hydrogen Technology Applications.

[edit] Claims

Dennis Klein's patent states that his electrolyzer differs from Yull Brown's in that it lacks the electric arc feature.[19]

The HHO trademark is associated with an unproven state of matter called magnegases,[18] and an unproven theory about magnecules, which supposedly shows that HHO is a "new gaseous and combustible form of water".[20]

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c d George Wiseman. Brown's Gas Book 2. Eagle Research, 59. ISBN 1895882192. 
  2. ^ a b 1911 Encyclopedia. "Oxyhydrogen Flame". (Available here Accessed 2008-01-19.)
  3. ^ a b c O'Connor, Ken. "Hydrogen", NASA Glenn Research Center Glenn Safety Manual. 
  4. ^ a b c William Augustus Tilden. Chemical Discovery and Invention in the Twentieth Century. Adamant Media Corporation, 80. ISBN 0543916464. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m US4,014,777 (PDF version) (1977-03-29) Yull Brown Welding 
  6. ^ a b US3,262,872 (PDF version) (1966-7-26) William Rhodes Generator Patent 
  7. ^ a b US4,081,656 (PDF version) (1978-3-28) Yull Brown Arc-assisted oxy/hydrogen welding 
  8. ^ a b c d Per Tunestal, Magnus Christensen, Patrik Einewall, Tobias Andersson, and Bengt Johansson (January, 2002). "Hydrogen Addition For Improved Lean Burn Capability of Slow and Fast Natural Gas Combustion Chambers". SAE Technical Paper Series (2002-01-2686): p. 7-8. 
  9. ^ a b c John Houseman and D.J. Cerini at the Jet Propulsion Lab., California Institute of Technology "On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion Engine". Abstracts of papers of the American Chemical Society (1974) West Coat Meeting, Anaheim, Calif. August 12-16 (meeting abstract paper# 740600)
  10. ^ Hoehn FW, Baisley RL, Dowdy MW, "Advances In Ultralean Combustion Technology Using Hydrogren-Enriched Gasoline", IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems 11 (5): 958-958 1975. (meeting abstract)
  11. ^ US4,107,008 (PDF version) (1978-8-15) Stephen Horvath Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen 
  12. ^ US4,573,435 (PDF version) (1986--) Glen Shelton Apparatus and method for generating hydrogen gas for use as a fuel additive in diesel engines 
  13. ^ a b c Yougen Kong, Sam Crane, Palak Patel and Bill Taylor (January, 2004). "NOx Trap Regeneration with an On-Board Hydrogen Generation Device". SAE Technical Paper Series (2004-01-0582): p. 6-7. 
  14. ^ a b G. Fontana, E. Galloni, E. Jannelli and M. Minutillo (January, 2002). "Performance and Fuel Consumption Estimation of a Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline Engine at Part-Load Operation". SAE Technical Paper Series (2002-01-2196): p. 4-5. 
  15. ^ Thorsten Allgeier, Martin Klenk and Tilo Landenfeld (January, 2004). "Advanced Emissions and Fuel Economy Control Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI-Engines". SAE Technical Paper Series (2004-01-1270): p. 11-12. 
  16. ^ a b US6,443,725 (PDF version) (2002-9-3) Sang Nam Kim Apparatus for generating energy using cyclic combustion of brown gas 
  17. ^ Don Lancaster. "Investigating Brown's gas, a tiny TV generator, and more", Electronics Now, 1998-02, pp. 22. 
  18. ^ a b c Santilli, Ruggero Maria (August 2006). "A new gaseous and combustible form of water". International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 31 (9): pp. 1113–1128. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2005.11.006. Retrieved on 2007-02-20
  19. ^ a b US6,689,259 (PDF version) (2004-2-10) Dennis Klein Mixed gas generator 
  20. ^ R. M. Santilli, A. K. Aringazin (December 20, 2001). "Structure and Combustion of Magnegases". Hadronic Journal (27): p. 299-330. arXiv:physics/0112066. 

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopędia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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